The purpose of the study was to develop a measure of ACEs applicable for young ado- lescents in low- and middle-income countries (ACEs) and to analyze the relationships of ACEs against two outcomes: depressive symptoms and violence perpetration. There is a paucity of research on the consequences of adverse child experiences (ACEs) on adolescent health and behavior from low- and middle-income countries and virtually no multinational studies.
By Robert Wm Blum, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H. *, Mengmeng Li, M.S.P.H., M.B.B.S., and Gia Naranjo-Rivera, M.P.A., M.A.
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland